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Standard Model? Or Extra-Gruesome?

Updated: Apr 15, 2021


From https://www.physik.uzh.ch/en/researcharea/lhcb/outreach/StandardModel.html


Keywords: Standard Model, fermions, bosons, quarks, leptons, Supersymmetry


What is the Standard Model?


The Standard Model is the most recent version of the collective groups of indivisible particles. What on earth do I mean by that? I mean that over time, scientists have discovered small "indivisible" particles (splinters of wood), and then even smaller "indivisible" particles (fibres of wood) and then smaller ones (molecules), and then smaller (atoms) and then eventually the Standard Model (the "indivisible" particles that modern science cannot divide even further). What are these "indivisible" particles?


The part(icle)s.


There are fermions and bosons (not a ship's officer!). Fermions (mass-ful particles) make up all things we can interact with (atoms, billiard balls etc.). Bosons are force-carriers (electromagnetic force, weak force and strong force). Fermions are divided into two groups, quarks and leptons. Quarks (not cheese!) come in 6 flavours: up, down, charm, strange, top and beauty/bottom. Combinations of up and down quarks make up protons and neutrons (u-u-d = proton, u-d-d = neutron). Both other pairs, {charm, strange} and {top, bottom} are heavier versions of {up, down} (- they have the same charge), and decay quicker, but they still constitute some proportions of matter.

What are leptons? The main lepton is the well-known electron. The heavier versions are the muon and the tau-particle (they have the same charge). These latter versions decay quicker. Also, there are neutrinos. These are particles whose main function is to steal energy from high-energy collisions. They take the forms of the other leptons and so are also leptons.


For the bosons, there is the photon for the electromagnetic force, the gluon for the strong force (holds like-charged quarks together) and the W+/- and Z boson for the weak force (responsible for nuclear ☢️ reactions). There have been attempts to unite these bosons with the hypothetical graviton for gravity, but we need a bundle of string (that is, string theory!! Ha ha!) to handle.


Supersymmetry


Supersymmetry (SuSy for short) is the theory that each fermion has a corresponding boson, and that each boson has a corresponding fermion in a mirror universe.


For clarity and brevity, a particle has a corresponding "sparticle". The bosons become sbosons, the quarks become squarks and the leptons become sleptons.


Actually not gruesome at all. AWESOME!



My SuSy joke on my T-shirt! (Let me know if you want one.)



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